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How to support refugee and asylum-seeking children and young people who have experienced trauma
Resource list updated 28 March 2022.
Dr Sarah Davidson MBE, Head of Psychosocial & Mental Health at British Red Cross | 6 December 2021.
Improving outcomes for refugees and asylum-seeking children and young people requires action from us all.
Information and resources to help you get started.
As a result of war, conflict and lack of resources, the past 10-15 years has seen a huge increase in the number of people making life-changing and often treacherous journeys to Europe, seeking asylum and refuge. Following the recent Afghan crisis, the UK government resettled 8,000 people with a commitment to resettle 25,000 Afghan nationals over the coming years , . This is in addition to 125,000 ‘work in progress’ asylum cases, including 2,773 applications for unaccompanied asylum-seeking children (UASC) from 2020 alone , . Our existing support systems are struggling to respond.
Organisations, practitioners, and educators who support children and young people, in any capacity, must increase awareness of trauma in young refugee and asylum-seekers. We must work together to maximise relationships and resources to improve the support offered to each child or young person as they arrive and in the years that follow.
Below is a brief summary of some of the traumatic experiences refugee and asylum-seeking children and young people may experience and a curated list of resources that might help you as you provide support.
Traumatic experiences of refugee and asylum-seeking children and young people
Many asylum seekers and refugees will experience traumatic events and losses , . This may include exposure to violence, often for prolonged periods of time, and separation from family members. They may have fled impending war, on short notice, and been exposed to many adversities . A literature review found that children seeking asylum in Europe experience a range of mental health difficulties, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, self-harm, and behaviour problems .
After people arrive, difficulties with social isolation, loss of family, community and culture, and challenges accessing social and health services may continue . These difficulties are often compounded by challenges with language, and a lack of understanding of the legal process and their rights as migrants. Asylum seekers and refugees may also experience attacks and hostility in their new country . External life stressors such as family difficulties, housing instability and worries about the asylum process were found to cause distractions and reduce motivation in education for young asylum seekers in the UK .
The following resources aim to support children and young people seeking asylum or living as refugees in the UK who have experienced trauma.
- Beacon House | Talking to children about war and conflict (PDF) – Guidance for adults supporting a child or teen on how to respond to their reactions and questions.
- British Red Cross | Afghanistan – Information and support for people from Afghanistan settling into life in the UK. Resources translated into Dari and Pashto. Includes information on the Red Cross’ Family Tracing service, videos about life in the UK, and information on how to contact ARAP, the Afghan Relocation Scheme.
- British Red Cross | Help for Ukrainian nationals – Information and support for people from Ukraine, including the family migration visa and the Ukrainian family scheme. Download ‘Advice for Ukrainians arriving in the UK’ and ‘How to talk to children about war’ in Ukrainian.
- Coram Children’s Legal Centre | Immigration, asylum and nationality – Legal casework advice, assistance, and legal representation as well as a range of free resources and online information on issues affecting children subject to immigration control.
- Doing What Matters in Times of Stress (who.int) – A free stress management guide for coping with adversity. The guide aims to equip people with practical skills to help cope with stress. It has been translated into 19 languages, including Arabic, Chinese, Dari, Farsi, and French.
- European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies | Helpful resources for mental help professionals and persons affected – A list of resources and with links.
- GOV.UK | Welcome: a guide for arrivals to the UK from Afghanistan on the locally employed staff relocation scheme – A guide for families arriving under the ex-gratia scheme (EGS) and the Afghan Relocations and Assistance Policy (ARAP). Dari and Pashto translations available.
- Mental Health and Psycho Social Support network | Caring for Children through Conflict and Displacement – Resource translated in Ukrainian, Russian, Polish and German. Additional relevant resources translated in multiple languages in the resources section.
- National Children’s Bureau | Supporting young people leaving care with insecure immigration status (PDF) – Research and evaluation paper on four projects delivered by five organisations working with young people leaving care with insecure immigration status. The report also looks at the impact of the pandemic on young people’s ability to access support and the projects’ ability to deliver.
- Phoenix Australia | Helping a friend or family member after a disaster (PDF) – A factsheet with simple and practical advice for those providing support.
- Psychological Society of Ireland | Psychological First Aid for Refugee Care: Helpful Do’s and Don’ts (PDF) – A rapid response psychology tool for the general public to assist the response to Ukrainian refugees arriving in Ireland. Includes advice for children and adolescents.
- Refugee Council | Children and young people – The Refugee Council offers support to all unaccompanied refugee children who arrive alone in England. They provide asylum and welfare support, help trafficked children and those whose age has been disputed, as well as provide mental health therapy. They offer a range of free resources for practitioners and refugees on their website.
- Scottish Government | Age assessment: practice guidance – A trauma informed guide to age assessment. Appendix 4: Trauma-informed Age Assessments covers applying the framework to the needs of unaccompanied asylum-seeking children.
- University of East London | Resources on refugee & asylum-seeking children – Mental health resources and guidelines on supporting asylum-seeking and refugee children.
- University of Manchester | Information for adults looking after a child or children through conflict and displacement – Two page leaflet developed based on the experience of displaced Syrian parents translated into Ukrainian, Russian, English, German and Polish
- Children & War Foundation | Teaching Recovery Techniques training – This training is being used in numerous ways to support child and adolescent asylum seekers. The techniques are based on trauma-informed CBT and have been evidenced to reduce PTSD. The training is designed for non-mental health professionals, including teachers, and includes a ‘train-the-trainer’ module.
- Schraer, R., Barrett, N. (2021, September 20). Afghanistan: How many asylum seekers has the UK taken in? Retrieved from https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-58245684
- Home office. (2021). Afghan citizens resettlement scheme. https://www.gov.uk/guidance/afghan-citizens-resettlement-scheme
- Sturge, G. (2021). Asylum statistics (SN01403). House of commons library. https://researchbriefings.files.parliament.uk/documents/SN01403/SN01403.pdf
- Home office. (2021). Asylum and resettlement datasets. https://www.gov.uk/government/statistical-data-sets/asylum-and-resettlement-datasets
- Bronstein, I., Montgomery, P., & Dobrowolski, S. (2012). PTSD in asylum-seeking male adolescents from Afghanistan. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 25(5), 551–557. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.21740
- Hodes, M., & Vostanis, P. (2019). Practitioner Review: Mental health problems of refugee children and adolescents and their management. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 60(7), 716–731. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.13002
- Flood, C., & Coyne, I. (2019). A literature review of the psychological status of asylum-seeking children: implications for nursing practice. British Journal of Nursing, 28(7), 461-466. https://doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2019.28.7.461
- Goosen, S., Stronks, K., & Kunst, A. E. (2014). Frequent relocations between asylum-seeker centres are associated with mental distress in asylum-seeking children: a longitudinal medical record study. International Journal of Epidemiology, 43(1), 94–104. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyt233
- Fuller, M., & Hayes, B. (2020). What are the experiences of education for unaccompanied asylum-seeking minors in the UK?. Child: Care, Health and Development, 46(4), 414–421. https://doi.org/10.1111/cch.12764
*updated 9 December 2021